Boek pagina PsychoPioneer
Psychology, 8th edition, 2018, Gray, Bjorklund.
PART I - Foundations for the Study of Psychology
    1
CHAPTER 1 - Background to the Study of Psychology
    1
Inleidend

4 begrippen in deze sectie:

behavior
mind
psychology
science


    1  PsychoPioneer 
Three Fundamental Ideas for Psychology: A Historical Overview

5 begrippen in deze sectie:

dualism
materialism
empricism
association by contiguity
nativism


    2
The Idea of Physical Causation of Behavior
    3
Inleidend
    3
Descartes' Version of Dualism: Focus on the Body
    3
Thomas Hobbes and the Philosophy of Materialism
    4
Nineteenth-Century Physiology: Learning About the Machine
    5
Inleidend
    5
Increased Understanding of Reflexes
    5
The Concept of Localization of Function in the Brain
    5
The Idea That the Mind and Behavior Are Shaped by Experience
    6
Inleidend
    6
The Empiricist Concept of Association by Contiguity
    7
The Nativist Response to Empiricism
    7
The Idea That the Machinery of Behavior and Mind Evolved Through Natural Selection
    8
Inleidend
    8
Natural Selection and the Analysis of the Functions of Behavior
    8
Applying Darwin's Ideas to Psychology
    9
The Scope of Psychology

10 begrippen in deze sectie:

level of analysis
behavioral neuroscience
cognitive neuroscience
biopsychology
behavioral genetics
evolutionary psychology
learning psychology
cognitive psychology
social psychology
cultural psychology


   10  PsychoPioneer 
Varieties of Explanations in Psychology and Their Application to Sexual Jealousy
   10
Inleidend
   10
Explanations That Focus on Biological Processes
   11
Inleidend
   11
Neural Explanations
   11
Physiological Explanations
   12
Genetic Explanations
   13
Evolutionary Explanations
   13
Explanations That Focus on Environmental Experiences, Knowledge, and Development
   14
Inleidend
   14
Learning Explanations
   14
Social Explanations
   15
Cultural Explanations
   16
Developmental Explanations
   16
Levels of Analysis Are Complementary
   17
A Comment on Psychological Specialities
   17
Psychology Connects With Other Scholoarly Fields
   18
Psychology as a Profession
   19
Thoughts About Using This Book and Its Special Feautures
   21
Using the Focus Questions to Guide Your Study
   21
Inleidend
   21
Using the Headings and Section Reviews to See the Hierarchical Structure of Ideas
   23
Using the Book's Other Features
   23
Inleidend
   23
Numbered Figures and Unnumbered Illustrations
   23
Boldface Italicized Terms and Glossary
   24
Thinking Critically About...
   24
Reflections and Connections Section
   24
Find Out More Section
   24
Reference Citations, Name Index, and Subject Index
   24
CHAPTER 2 - Methods of Psychology
   29
Lessons From Clever Hans
   29
The Mystery
   30
The Solution
   30
Observations, Theories, and Hypotheses
   31
The Lessons
   32
Inleidend
   32
The value of skepticism
   32
The value of careful observations under controlled conditions
   32
The problem of observer-expectancy effects
   32
Types of Research Strategies

14 begrippen in deze sectie:

variable
dependent variable
experiment
independent variable
correlational study
descriptive study
field study
laboratory study
introspection
naturalistic observation
observational method
self-report method
test
Hawthorne effect


   33
Research Designs
   33
Inleidend
   33
Experiments
   33
Inleidend
   33
Example of a Within-Subject Experiment
   34
Example of a Between-Groups Experiment
   34
Correlational Studies
   35
Inleidend
   35
Example of a Correlational Study
   35
Why Cause and Effect Cannot Be Determined From a Correlational Study
   36
Descriptive Studies
   37
Research Settings
   38
Data-Collection Methods
   38
Inleidend
   38
Self-report methods
   39
Observational methods
   39
Statistical Methods in Psychology

8 begrippen in deze sectie:

descriptive statistics
inferential statistics
mean
median
correlation coefficient
standard deviation
variability
statistical significance


   41
Descriptive Statistics
   41
Inleidend
   41
Describing a Set of Scores
   41
Describing a Correlation
   42
Inleidend
   42
Plot A
   42
Plot B
   43
Plot C
   43
Plot D
   43
Inferential Statistics
   43
Inleidend
   43
Statistical Significance
   44
The Components of a Test of Statistical Significance
   44
Inleidend
   44
1. The size of the observed effect
   44
2. The number of individual subjects or observations in the study
   44
3. The variability of the data within each group
   45
Samenvattend
   45
Minimizing Bias in Psychological Research

10 begrippen in deze sectie:

bias
biased sample
operational definition
autism (autism spectrum disorder)
developmental psychology
observer-expectancy effect
blind
subject-expectancy effect
double-blind experiment
placebo


   45
Avoiding Biased Samples
   46
Reliability and Validity of Measurements
   47
Inleidend
   47
Reliability
   47
Validity
   48
Avoiding Observer-Expectancy and Subject-Expectancy Effects
   49
Inleidend
   49
.
   49
.
   51
.
   51
Replicating Earlier Studies
   52
Ethical Issues in Psychological Research
   54
Research With Humans
   54
Research With Nonhuman Animals
   54
Formal Principles and Safeguards for Ethical Research
   55
PART II - The Biological Bases of Behavior
   59
CHAPTER 3 - Genetics and Evolutionary Foundations of Behavior
   59
Review of Basic Genetic Mechanisms

15 begrippen in deze sectie:

DNA
evolution
gene
chromosomes
genotype
phenotype
meiosis
mitosis
alleles
dominant gene
fraternal twins
identical twins
recessive gene
zone of proximal development
zygote


   60
How Genes Affect Behavior
   60
How Genes Are Passed Along in Sexual Reproduction
   62
Inheritance of Behavioral Traits

4 begrippen in deze sectie:

normal distribution
polygenic characteristic
selective breeding
epigenetics


   66
Examples of Single-Gene (Mendelina) Behavioral Traits
   66
Polygenic Characteristics and Selective Breeding
   67
Epigenetics: How Genes Really Get Turned On and Off
   70
Evolution by Natural Selection

4 begrippen in deze sectie:

artificial selection
mutations
natural selection
naturalistic fallacy


   72
Darwin's Insight: Selective Breeding Occurs in Nature
   72
Genetic Diversity Provides the Material for Natural Selection
   73
Environmental Change Provides the Force for Natural Selection
   74
Evolution Has No Foresight
   75
Natural Selection as a Foundation for Functionalism

5 begrippen in deze sectie:

distal explanations
functionalism
proximate explanations
vestigial characteristics
adaptation


   76
Distal and Proximate Explanations of Behavior
   76
Limitations on Functionalist Thinking
   77
Natural Selection as a Foundation for Understanding Species-Typical Behaviors

2 begrippen in deze sectie:

species-typical behavior
homology


   79
Species-Typical Behaviors in Humans
   80
The Value of Cross-Species Comparisons of Species-Typical Behaviors
   84
Evolutionary Analyses of Mating, Aggression, and Helping

12 begrippen in deze sectie:

monogamy
parental investment
polyandry
polygyny
promiscuity
aggression
altruism
cooperation
helping
kin selection theory
reciprocity theory
neuroscience


   87
A Theory Relating Mating Patterns to Parental Investment
   87
What About Human Mating Patterns?
   91
Sex Differences in Agression
   93
Patterns of Helping
   95
CHAPTER 4 - The Neural Control of Behavior
  101
Neurons: The Building Blocks of the Brain

25 begrippen in deze sectie:

central nervous system
nerve
neurons
peripheral nervous system
interneuron
motor neuron
sensory neuron
axon
axon terminal
cell body
dendrites
myelin sheath
nucleus
action potentials
cell membrane
resting potential
neurotransmitter
synapse
excitatory synapse
inhibitory synapse
neurogenesis
apoptosis
cerebral cortex
mirror neurons
selective cell death (or apoptosis)


  102
Three Basic Varieties of Neurons, and Structures Common to Them
  102
How Neurons Send Messages Along Their Axons
  105
How Neurons Influence Other Neurons: Synaptic Transmission
  108
The Development of Neurons
  110
Mirror Neurons: A Means of Social Learning?
  111
Methods of Mapping the Brain's Behavorial Functions

7 begrippen in deze sectie:

TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation)
electroencephalogram (EEG)
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
PET (positron emission tomography)
fMRI
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
positron emission tomography (PET)


  113
Methods Used for Studying the Human Brain
  113
Methods Used for Studying the Brains of Nonhuman Animals
  117
Functional Organization of the Nervous System

28 begrippen in deze sectie:

cranial nerve
spinal nerve
autonomic portion of the peripheral motor system
somatic portion of the peripheral motor system
somatosensation
parasympathetic division of the autonomic motor system
sympathetic division of the autonomic motor system
pattern generators
brainstem
medulla
midbrain
pons
basal ganglia
cerebellum
thalamus
amygdala
hippocampus
hypothalamus
limbic system
association areas
frontal lobes
occipital lobes
parietal lobes
primary motor area
primary sensory areas
temporal lobes
prefrontal cortex
premotor areas


  119
Peripheral Nerves: The Nervous System's Interface With the World
  119
The Spinal Cord: A Conduit and an Organizer of Simple Behaviors
  121
Subcortical Structures of the Brain
  123
The Cerebral Cortex
  126
How Hormones Interact With the Nervous System
  130
How Hormones Affect Behavior
  131
How Hormones Are Controlled by the Brain
  131
Hormonal Influence on Sex Drive
  132
Hemispheric Differences in the Cerebral Cortex

4 begrippen in deze sectie:

corpus collosum
Broca's aphasia
aphasia
Wernicke's aphasia


  134
Effects of Surgical Separation of the Hemispheres: Split Brain, Split Mind
  135
Language Areas of the Left Hemisphere
  138
Changes in the Brain Over Time

3 begrippen in deze sectie:

LPT
long-term potentiation (LPT)
encephalization quotient


  140
If You Use It, It Will Grow
  141
Strengthening of Synapses as a Foundation for Learning
  144
The Evolution of the Human Brain
  146
CHAPTER 5 - Mechanisms of Motivation and Emotion
  151
General Principles of Motivation

8 begrippen in deze sectie:

drive
motivation
motivational state
homeostasis
nonregulatory drive
regulatory drive
central drive system
central-state theory of drives


  151
Varieties of Drives
  152
Drives as States of the Brain
  155
Reward Mechanisms of the Brain

4 begrippen in deze sectie:

medial forebrain bundle
dopamine
nucleus accumbens
endorphins


  156
Three Components of Reward: Liking, Wanting, and Reinforcement
  156
Hijacking the Brain's Reward System
  159
Hunger: An Example of a Regulatory Drive

3 begrippen in deze sectie:

arcuate nucleus
leptin
sensory-specific satiety


  160
Neural and Hormonal Control of Appetite
  161
Problems of Obesity
  163
The Sleep Drive

4 begrippen in deze sectie:

REM (rapid-eye-movement) sleep
non-REM sleep
circadian rhythm
suprachiasmatic nucleus


  166
Description of Sleep as a Physiological and Behavorial State
  166
Theories About the Functions of Sleep
  170
Brain Mechanisms Controlling Sleep
  174
Foundations for Understanding Emotions

4 begrippen in deze sectie:

affect
emotion
mood
discrete emotion theory


  177
The Nature and Value of Emotions
  177
Effects of Bodily Responses on Emotional Feelings
  180
Brain Mechanisms of Emotion
  184
PART III - Sensation and Perception
  191
CHAPTER 6 - Smell, Taste, Pain, Hearing, and Psychophysics
  191
Overview of Sensory Processes

7 begrippen in deze sectie:

perception
sensation
sensory areas
sensory receptors
receptor potentials
sensory coding
transduction


  192
Each Sensory System Has Distinct Receptors and Neural Pathways
  192
Sensory Systems Preserve Information About Stimulus Quantity and Quality
  194
Sensory Systems Respond to Changes More Than to Steady States
  195
Psychophysics

7 begrippen in deze sectie:

psychophysics
sensory adaptation
absolute threshold
difference treshold
just-noticable difference (jnd)
Weber's law
signal detection theory


  195
The Absolute Treshold Is a Measure of Sensitivity
  196
The Difference Treshold Depends on the Magnitude of the Original Stimulus
  196
Signal Detection Theory
  197
Smell

2 begrippen in deze sectie:

olfaction
pheromone


  199
Anatomy and Physiology of Smell
  199
Inleidend
  199
Transduction and Coding for the Sense of Smell
  199
Olfactory Brain Areas Beyond the Olfactory Bulb
  200
Smell as a Component of Flavor: The Mouth-to-Nose Connection
  200
Differences Among People in Olfactory Sensitivity
  201
Discriminating Among Individuals by Smell
  202
Inleidend
  202
Role of Smell in Mother-Infant Bonding
  202
Possible Role of Smell in Choosing a Genetically Compatible Mate
  202
Smell as a Mode of Communication: Do Humans Produce Pheromones
  203
Taste
  204
Anatomy and Physiology of Taste
  205
Inleidend
  205
Six Primary Tastes, Five (or Six) Types of Receptor Cells
  205
Taste Areas in the Brain
  205
An Evolutionary Account of Taste Quality
  206
Inleidend
  206
Possible Explanation of Sex and Age Difference in Bitter Sensitivity
  206
Pain

2 begrippen in deze sectie:

gate control therory
stress-induced analgesia


  208
Neural Pathways for Pain
  208
The Modulation of Pain
  210
Hearing

10 begrippen in deze sectie:

amplitude
frequency
pitch
middle ear
outer ear
basilar membrane
cochlea
hair cells
inner ear
phonemes


  213
Sound and Its Transduction by the Ear
  123
Pitch Perception
  217
Making Sense of Sounds
  220
CHAPTER 7 - The Psychology of Vision
  225
How the Eye Works

15 begrippen in deze sectie:

photoreceptors
cornea
lens
pupil
retina
cones
fovea
rhodopsin
rods
blind spot
cone vision
dark adaptation
light adaptation
optic nerve
rod vision


  225
Functional Organization of the Eye
  226
Differences Between Cone Vision and Rod Vision
  228
Seeing Colors

4 begrippen in deze sectie:

law of complementarity
three-primaries law
trichromatic theory
opponent-process theory


  229
The Trichromatic Theory
  230
The Opponent-Process Theory
  233
Development and Plasticity of thr Visual System

3 begrippen in deze sectie:

experience-expectant processes
experience-expectant synaptogenesis
iris


  235
Vision at Birth
  235
Is "Experience" Necessary to See
  236
Seeing Forms, Patterns, Objects, and Faces

23 begrippen in deze sectie:

primary visual area
feature detector
parallel processing
serial processing
Gestalt psychology
Gestalt principles of grouping
closure principle
common-movement principle
good continuation principle
good form principle
proximity principle
similarity principle
figure
ground
reversible figure
bottom-up control
top-down control
visual agnosia
visual form agnosia
visual object agnosia
own-race bias
fusiform face area (FFA)
prosopagnosia


  237
The Detection and Integration of Stimulus Features
  237
Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Grouping
  240
Evidence That Wholes Can Effect the Perception of Parts
  243
Recognizing Objects
  244
Recognizing Faces
  247
Seeing in Three Dimensions

13 begrippen in deze sectie:

binocular disparity
motion parallax
linear perspective
occlusion
pictorial clues for depth
relative image size for familiar objects
texture gradient
differential lighting of surfaces
positive relative to the horizon
Müller-Lyer illusion
Ponzo illusion
size constancy
moon illusion


  251
Cues for Depth Perception
  252
Inleidend
  252
.
  252
.
  252
.
  253
Inleidend
  253
Motion Parallax
  253
Pictorial Cues
  254
Inleidend
  254
1. Occlusion
  254
2. Relative image size for familiar objects
  254
.
  254
.
  254
.
  255
.
  255
The Role of Depth Cues in Size Perception
  255
Multisensory Perception: Combining Senses

4 begrippen in deze sectie:

multisensory integration
visual dominance effect
synestesia
learning


  258
Multisensory Integration
  258
Synesthesia
  259
PART IV - Learning and Thinking
  265
CHAPTER 8 - Basic Processes of Learning
  265
Classical Conditioning

16 begrippen in deze sectie:

classical conditioning
habituation
reflex
response
stimulus
conditioned response
conditioned stimulus
unconditioned response
unconditioned stimulus
extinction
spontaneous recovery
behaviorism
discrimination training
evaluative conditioning
drug tolerance
tolerance


  266
Fundamentals of Classical Conditioning
  266
What Is Learned in Classical Conditioning
  270
Conditioned Fear, Liking, Hunger, and Sexual Arousal
  273
Conditioned Drug Reactions
  276
Operant Conditioning

25 begrippen in deze sectie:

operant conditioning
operant response
law of effect
reinforcer
continuous reinforcement
extinction
partial reinforcement
shaping
fixed-interval (FI) schedule
fixed-ratio (FR) schedule
negative reinforcement
positive reinforcement
positive reinforcer
reinforcement
variable-interval (VI) schedule
variable-ratio (VR) schedule
negative punishment
negative reinforcer
positive punishment
punishment
discriminative stimulus
generalization
concept
behavior analysis
overjustification effect


  278
From the Law of Effect to Operant Conditioning: From Thorndike to Skinner
  279
Principles of Reinforcement
  283
Discrimination Training in Operant Conditioning
  286
When Rewards Backfire: The Overjustification Effect in Humans
  287
Behavior Analysis
  288
Beyond Classical and Operant Theories of Learning: Play, Exploration, and Observation

5 begrippen in deze sectie:

symbolic play
latent learning
observational learning
social learning
vicarious reinforcement


  291
Play: How the Young Learn How
  291
Exploration: How Animals Learn What and Where
  294
Social Learning: Learning by Watching and Interacting With Others
  296
Specialized Learning Abilities: Filling the Blanks in Species-Typical Behavior Patterns

3 begrippen in deze sectie:

critical period
imprinting
Westermarck effect


  300
Special Abilities for Learning What to Eat
  300
Other Examples of Special Learning Abilities
  303
CHAPTER 9 - Memory, Attention, and Consciousness
  311
Overview: An Information-Processing Model of the Mind

15 begrippen in deze sectie:

consciousness
control processes
memory stores
sensory memory
short-term memory (short-term store)
short-term store (short-term memory)
working memory
long-term memory
attention
automatic processes
effortful processes
encoding
retrieval
Stroop interference effect
dual-processing theories


  312
Sensory Memory: The Brief Prolongation of Sensory Experience
  313
The Short-Term Store: Conscious Perception and Thought
  313
Long-Term Memory: The Mind's Library of Information
  314
Control Processes: The Mind's Information Transportation Systems
  314
"Fast" and "Slow" Thinking: Dual-Processing Theories of Cognition
  316
Attention: The Portal to Consciousness

4 begrippen in deze sectie:

preattentive processing
echoic memory
iconic memory
priming


  317
The Ability to Focus Attention and Ignore the Irrelevant
  318
The Ability to Shift Attention to Significant Stimuli
  319
Unconscious, Automatic Processing of Stimulus Input
  321
Brain Mechanisms of Preattentive Processing and Attention
  323
Working Memory: The Active, Conscious Mind

4 begrippen in deze sectie:

central executive
phonological loop
short-term memory span
visuospatial sketchpad


  325
Verbal Working Memory: The Phonological Loop
  325
Working-Memory Span
  326
Executive Functions

1 begrippen in deze sectie:

executive functions


  328
Four General Conclusions About Executive Functions
  329
Neurological Basis of Executive Functions
  330
Memory as the Representation of Knowledge

8 begrippen in deze sectie:

explicit memory
implicit memory
memory
episodic memory
semantic memory
procedural memory
temporal-lobe amnesia
infantile amnesia


  331
Explicit and Implicit Memory
  331
Neuropsychological Evidence for Separate Memory Systems
  334
Memory as the Process of Remembering

7 begrippen in deze sectie:

elaboration
encoding rehearsal
maintenance rehearsal
chunking
anterograde amnesia
consolidation
retrograde amnesia


  338
Encoding Information Into Long-Term Memory
  339
Memory Consolidation
  345
Retrieving Information From Long-Term Memory

7 begrippen in deze sectie:

association
association by contiguity
association by similarity
retrieval cue
schema
script
prospective memory


  348
Mental Associations as Foundations for Retrieval
  349
Memory Construction as a Source of Distortion
  350
Prospective Memory and Mental Time Travel
  354
CHAPTER 10 - Solving Problems: Reasoning and Intelligence
  359
How People Reason I: Analogies and Induction

5 begrippen in deze sectie:

analogy
availability bias
inductive reasoning
confirmation bias
predictable-world bias


  360
Analogies as Foundations for Reasoning
  360
Inductive Reasoning and Some Biases in It
  365
How People Reason II: Deduction and Insight

4 begrippen in deze sectie:

deductive reasoning
insight problem
mental set
functional fixedness


  368
The Concrete Nature of Deductive Reasoning
  369
Elements of Insight
  371
Cross-Cultural Differences in Perception and Reasoning
  375
Responses of Unschooled Non-Westerners to Western-Style Logic Questions
  375
An East-West Difference: Focus on Wholes Versus Parts
  376
The Practice and Theory of Intelligence Testing

5 begrippen in deze sectie:

intelligence
IQ
fluid intelligence
general intelligence (g)
crystallized intelligence


  378
A Brief History of Intelligence Testing
  379
The Validity of Intelligence Tests as Predictors of Achievement
  380  PsychoPioneer 
The Concept of General Intelligence and Attempts to Explain It
  382
Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Intelligence

4 begrippen in deze sectie:

nature-nurture debate
heritability
stereotype threat
Flynn effect


  386
Nature, Nurture, and IQ Differences
  386
Origins of IQ Differences Between Cultural Groups
  392
The Historical Increase in IQ
  395
PART V - Growth of the Mind and Person
  401
CHAPTER 11 - The Development of Body, Thought, and Language
  401
Physical Development

5 begrippen in deze sectie:

embryonic phase
fetal phase
zygotic (or germinal) phase
teratogens
puberty


  402
Prenatal Development
  402
Physical Development Puberty and Adolescence
  406
How Infants Learn About the Environment

3 begrippen in deze sectie:

shared attention
social referencing
object permanence


  408
The Infant as Explorer
  408
Infant's Knowledge of Core Physical Principles
  411
Three Theories of Children's Mental Development

14 begrippen in deze sectie:

schemes
accomodation
assimilation
operation
sensorimotor schem
preoperational scheme
concrete-operational scheme
representational insight
centration
decentration
egocentricity
formal-operational scheme
tools of intellectual adaptation
scaffolding


  414
Piaget's Theory: Role of the Child's Own Actions in Mental Growth
  414
Vygotsky's Theory: Role of the Sociocultural Environment in Mental Growth
  421
Inleidend
  421
Tools of Intellectual Adaptation
  422
The Role of Collaboration and Dialogue in Mental Development
  424
The Child as Apprentice
  425
An Information-Processing Perspective on Mental Development
  425
Inleidend
  425
Development of Long-Term Memory Systems: Episodic Memory Comes Last
  426
The Development of Basic-Level Processes: Executive Function
  427
Children's Understanding of Minds

3 begrippen in deze sectie:

theory of mind
autism (autism spectrum disorder)
developmental psychology


  431
Even Very Young Children Explain Behavior in Mental Terms
  431
Autism: A Disorder in Understanding Minds
  433
The Nature of Language and Children's Early Linguistic Abilities

4 begrippen in deze sectie:

morphemes
grammar
phonemes
syntax


  435
Universal Characteristics of Human Language
  435
The Course of Language Development
  437
Internal and External Supports for Language Development

7 begrippen in deze sectie:

LAD (language-aquisition device)
language-aquisition device (LAD)
universal grammar
creole language
pidgin language
LASS (anguage-aquisition support system)
language-aquisition support system (LASS)


  442
The Idea of Special Inborn Mechanisms for Language Learning
  442
The Language-Aquisition Support System
  444
Bilingualism
  445
CHAPTER 12 - Social Development
  451
Infancy: Using Caregivers as a Base for Growth

6 begrippen in deze sectie:

attachment
disorganized/disoriented attachment
insecure-avoidant attachment
insecure-resistant attachment
secure attachment
strange-situation test


  451
Attachment to Caregivers
  452
Cross-Cultural Differences in Infant Care
  456
Helping, Comforting, and Learning From Others in Childhood

2 begrippen in deze sectie:

prosocial behavior
overimitation


  458
The Development of Prosocial Behavior
  458
Social Learning
  460
Parenting Styles
  462
Correlations Between Disciplinary Styles and Children's Behavior
  463
The Cause-Effect Problem in Relating Parenting Style to Children's Behavior
  463
The Roles of Play and Gender in Development
  464
Developmental Functions of Play
  465
Gender Differences in Social Development
  467
Adolescence: Breaking Out of the Cocoon

1 begrippen in deze sectie:

emerging adulthood


  472
Shifting From Parents to Peers for Intimacy and Guidance
  472
Increased Rates of Recklessness and Delinquency
  474
An Expanded Moral Vision and Moral Sense of Self
  477
Sexual Explorations
  478
Adulthood: Finding Satisfaction in Love and Work
  483
Love
  483
Employment
  485
Growing Old
  487
PART VI - Social and Personality Psychology
  493
CHAPTER 13 - Social Psychology
  493
Forming Impressions of Other People

3 begrippen in deze sectie:

attribution
person bias
fundamental attribution error


  494
Making Attributions From Observed Behavior
  494
The Person Bias in Attributions
  494
Effects of Facial Features on Person Perceptions
  496
Forming Impressions on the Internet
  498
Perceiving and Evaluating the Self

13 begrippen in deze sectie:

Pygmalion effects
self-concept
self-fullfilling prophecies
self-esteem
reference group
social comparison
self-serving attributional bias
attitude
explicit attitudes
implicit association tests
implicit attitudes
cognitive dissonance theory
insufficient-justification effect


  499
Seeing Ourselves Through the Eyes of Others
  499
Actively Constructing Our Self-Perceptions
  501
Attitudes, Explicit and Implicit: Their Origins and Their Effects on Behavior
  503
Attitudes as Rationalizations to Attain Cognitive Consistency
  504
Perceiving Ourselves and Others as Members of Groups

7 begrippen in deze sectie:

in-groups
out-groups
personal identity
social identity
explicit stereotypes
implicit stereotypes
stereotype


  507
In-Groups and Out-Groups and Their Effects on Perception and Behavior
  507
Distinction Between Explicit and Implicit Stereotypes
  508
Implicit Stereotypes Can Be Deadly
  509
Defeating Explicit and Implicit Negative Stereotypes
  510
Effects of Being Observed and Evaluated

5 begrippen in deze sectie:

social facilitation
social interference
social pressure
stereotype threat
impression management


  511
Facilitating and Interfering Effects of an Audience
  511
Choking Under Pressure: The Working-Memory Explanation
  512
Stereotype Threat as a Special Cause of Choking
  512
Impression Management: Behavior as Performance
  513
Effects of Others' Examples, Opinions, and Requests

6 begrippen in deze sectie:

informational influence
normative influence
group polarization
groupthink
foot-in-the-door technique
low-ball technique


  515
Asch's Classic Conformity Experiments
  515
Norms as Forces for Helpful and Harmful Actions
  516
Social Pressure in Group Discussions
  519
Requests and Sales Pressure: Some Principles of Compliance
  520
Conditions That Promote Obedience: Milgram's Experiments
  522
To Cooperate or Not: Prosocial Behavior and the Dilemma of Social Life

3 begrippen in deze sectie:

social dilemma
superordinate goals
personality


  527
The Tragedy of the Commons: A Social-Dilemma Allegory
  527
Conditions That Promote Cooperation
  528
Group Against Group: Lessons from Robbers Cave
  529
CHAPTER 14 - Personality
  535
Personality as Behavioral Dispositions, or Traits

9 begrippen in deze sectie:

trait
trait theories of personality
factor analysis
five-factor model
grit
Machiavellianism
dark triad
narcissism
psychopathy


  536
Trait Theories Efficient Systems for Describing Personalities
  536
The Relationship of Personality Measures to People's Actual Behavior
  541
Continuity and Change in Personality Over Time
  543
Genetic Foundations of Personality Traits
  544
Personality as Adaptation to Life Conditions

3 begrippen in deze sectie:

differential susceptibility to environmental influence
sibling contrast
split-parent identification


  547
Advantages of Being Different From One Another
  547
Adapting to the Family Environment
  550
Inleidend
  550
Sibling Contrast: Carving Out a Unique Niche Within the Family
  551
Adapting to One's Gender
  552
Inleidend
  552
Some Gender Differences in Personality
  552
Evolutionary Foundations of Gender Differences
  553
Cultural Foundations of Gender Differences
  553
Personality as Mental Processes I: Psychodynamic and Humanistic Views

12 begrippen in deze sectie:

psychoanalysis
psychodynamic theories
defense mechanisms
displacement
repression
reaction formation
sublimation
projection
rationalization
humanistic theories
phenomenological reality
self-actualization


  555
Elements of the Psychodynamic Perspective
  555
Defensive Styles as Dimensions of Personality
  560
The Humanistic Perspective: The Self and Life's Meanings
  562
Personality as Mental Processes II: Social-Cognitive Views

3 begrippen in deze sectie:

social-cognitive theories of personality
locus of control
self-efficacy


  564
Beliefs Viewed as Personality Traits
  564
The Idea of Situation-Specific Personality Traits
  569
Cross-Cultural Differences in Personality
  572
PART VII - Psychological Disorders and Treatment
  577
CHAPTER 15 - Psychological Disorders
  577
Problems in Identifying Psychological Disorders

6 begrippen in deze sectie:

DSM-5
mental disorder
psychological disorder
reliability
validity
ADHD


  578
What is a Psychological Disorder?
  578
Categorizing and Diagnosing Psychological Disorders
  579
Cultural Variations in Disorders and Diagnoses
  582
Causes of Psychological Disorders

5 begrippen in deze sectie:

Alzheimer's disease
Down syndrome
precipitating causes of a psychological disorder
predisposing causes of a psychological disorder
perpetuating causes of a psychological disorder


  585
The Brain Is Involved in All Psychological Disorders
  585
A Framework for Thinking About Multiple Causes of Psychological Disorders
  587
Possible Causes of Sex Differences in the Prevalence of Specific Disorders
  588
Anxiety Disorders

5 begrippen in deze sectie:

anxiety disorders
generalized anxiety disorder
phobia
agoraphobia
panic disorder


  591
Inleidend
  591  PsychoPioneer 
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  591
Phobias
  592
Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
  594  PsychoPioneer 
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

2 begrippen in deze sectie:

OCD (obsessive-compulsive disorder)
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)


  595
Inleidend
  595  PsychoPioneer 
Characteristics of OCD
  595  PsychoPioneer 
Brain Abnormalities Related to OCD
  596  PsychoPioneer 
Traumatic and Stress-Related Disorders: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

2 begrippen in deze sectie:

PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder)
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)


  597
Inleidend
  597  PsychoPioneer 
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  597  PsychoPioneer 
Mood Disorders

7 begrippen in deze sectie:

bipolar and related disorders
depressive disorders
dysthymia
major depression
rumination
bipolar I disorder
bipolar II disorder


  599
Depressive Disorders
  599
Bipolar Disorders
  604
Schizophrenia

2 begrippen in deze sectie:

schizofrenia
concordance


  607
Diagnostic Characteristics of Schizofrenia
  607
Neurological Factors Associated With Schizofrenia
  609
Genetic and Environmental Causes of Schizofrenia
  610
Personality Disorders

11 begrippen in deze sectie:

paranoid personality disorder
personality disorder
schizoid personality disorder
schizotypal personality disorder
antisocial personality disorder
avoidant personality disorder
borderline personality disorder
dependant personality disorder
histrionic personality disorder
narcissistic personality disorder
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCD)


  616
Cluster A: "Odd" Personality Disorders
  617
Cluster B: "Dramatic" Personality Disorders
  618
Cluster C: "Anxious" Personality Disorders
  620
Origins of Personality Disorders
  620
CHAPTER 16 - Treatment of Psychological Disorders
  625
Care as a Social Issue

1 begrippen in deze sectie:

clinical psychology


  625
What to Do With Individuals With Severe Psychological Disorders? A Brief History
  625
Structure of the Mental Health System
  627
Biological Treatments

5 begrippen in deze sectie:

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
psychosurgery
TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation)
deep brain stimulation
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)


  629
Drugs
  629
Other Biologically Based Treatments
  633
Psychotherapy I: Psychodynamic and Humanistic Therapies

8 begrippen in deze sectie:

psychotherapy
psychoanalysis
psychodynamic therapy
free association
resistance
transference
humanistic therapy
person-centered therapy


  635
Principles of Psychodynamic Therapies
  636
Principles of Humanistic Therapy
  639
Psychotherapy II: Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies

5 begrippen in deze sectie:

behavior therapy
cognitive-behavorial therapy
contingency management
exposure treatment
cognitive therapy


  642
Principles of Behavior Therapy
  642
A Case Example: Miss Muffet Overcomes Her Spider Phobia
  644
Principles of Cognitive Therapy
  645
A Case Example: Beck's Cognitive Treatment of a Depressed Young Woman
  648
Evaluating Psychotherapies
  650
Is Psychotherapy Helpful, and Are Some Types of It More Helpful Than Others?
  650
The Role of Common Factors in Therapy Outcome
  652
APPENDICES
 1001
A - Statistical Appendix
 1001
Organizing and Summarizing a Set of Scores

7 begrippen in deze sectie:

frequency distribution
normal distribution
mean
median
mode
variance
standard deviation


 1001
Ranking the Scores and Depicting a Frequency Distribution
 1001
Shapes of Frequency Distributions
 1002
Measures of Central Tendency
 1003
Measures of Variability
 1004
Converting Scores for Purposes of Comparison

3 begrippen in deze sectie:

percentile rank
standardized score
z score


 1006
Percentile Rank
 1006
Standardized Scores
 1006
Relationship of Standardized Scores to Percentile Ranks
 1007
Calculating a Correlation Coefficient
 1007
Supplement on Psychophysical Scaling
 1009
Derivation of Fechner's Law from Weber's Law
 1009